AML & KYC Policies
The following policy has been derived from the general principles, laws, regulations and directives for combating money laundering. Anzen8 OÜ (OR Europe Progress Capital OÜ, hereafter Anzen8) is taking security measures and has adopted policies, practices and procedures that promote high ethical and professional standards and preventAnzen8 from being used, intentionally or unintentionally, by criminal elements. Anzen8 has put in place Know-Your-Customer (KYC) programs as an essential element for service, risk management and control procedures. Programs include: Customer Acceptance Customer Identification On-going Monitoring of High-Risk Accounts Risk Management Anzen8 is obliged not only to establish the identity of its customers, but also to monitor account activity to determine those transactions that do not conform with the normal or expected transactions for that customer or type of account. KYC constitutes a core feature of services’ risk management and control procedures. The intensity of KYC programs beyond these essential elements is tailored to the degree of risk.
CUSTOMER ACCEPTANCE POLICY
Anzen8 maintains clear customer acceptance policies and procedures, including a description of the types of customer that are likely to pose a higher-than-average risk. Before accepting a potential client, KYC and due diligence procedures are followed, by examining factors such as customers’ background, country of origin, public or high-profile position, linked accounts, business activities or other risk indicators. Enhanced due diligence is essential for an individual with high net worth but whose source of funds is unclear. New clients’ money is transferred through a reputable bank. Banks have their own anti-money laundering procedures. A decision to enter into business relationships with higher risk customers, such as politically exposed persons, is taken exclusively at senior management level. Please note that we do not accept US residents/citizens.
Customer identification is an essential element of KYC standards. For the purposes of this document, a customer includes:
The person or entity that maintains an account withAnzen8 or those on whose behalf an account is maintained (i.e. beneficial owners);
The beneficiaries of transactions conducted by professional intermediaries;
Any person or entity connected with a financial transaction who can pose a significant reputational or other risk toAnzen8.
Anzen8 maintains a systematic procedure for identifying new customers and cannot enter into a service relationship until the identity of a new customer is satisfactorily verified. Procedures document and enforce policies for identification of customers and those acting on their behalf. The best documents for verifying the identity of customers are those most difficult to obtain illicitly and to counterfeit. Anzen8 pays special attention in the case of non-resident customers and in no case are short-circuit identity procedures followed just because the new customer is unable to present enough documents and information to satisfy the KYC and due diligence procedures. The customer identification process applies naturally at the outset of the relationship. To ensure that records remain up-to-date and relevant. Anzen8 undertakes regular reviews of existing records. An appropriate time to do so is when a transaction of significance takes place when customer documentation standards change substantially, or when there is a material change in the way that the account is operated.
However, if the AML/CFT (Anti-Money Laundering and Countering the Financing of Terrorism) Supervisor for Anzen8 (AML/CFT Supervisor) becomes aware at any time, through compliance and/or AML/CFT Supervisor reviews, that it lacks sufficient information about an existing customer, immediate steps are taken to ensure that all relevant information is obtained as quickly as possible.
Anzen8 will not accept as customers, persons or entities from restricted or sanctioned countries, organisations. Reference points for such reviews include the websites of:
Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade;
United Nations Consolidated Lists;
US Office of Foreign Assets Control.
Anzen8 can be exposed to reputational risk, and should, therefore, apply enhanced due diligence to such operations. Private accounts, which by nature involve a large measure of confidentiality, can be opened in the name of an individual, a commercial business, a trust, an intermediary or a personalized investment with Anzen8. In each case, reputational risk may arise if Anzen8 does not diligently follow established KYC procedures. All new clients and new accounts are approved by at least one person the Company’s Customer Financial Officer or its own AML/CFT Officer. In case of a new high-risk customer, the final decision is taken by the Company’s managing director. Particular safeguards have been put in place internally to protect the confidentiality of customers and their business. Anzen8 ensures that equivalent scrutiny and monitoring of these customers and their business is conducted, e.g., it is available to be reviewed by the AML/CFT Supervisor and auditors. Anzen8 maintains clear standards and policies, on what records must be kept for customer identification and individual transactions. Such practice is essential to permit Anzen8 to monitor its relationship with the customer, to understand the customer’s on-going business and, if necessary, to provide evidence in the event of disputes, legal action, or a financial investigation that could lead to criminal prosecution. As the starting point and follow-up of the identification process, Anzen8 obtains customer identification papers and retain copies of them for at least five years after an account is closed. Anzen8 also retains all financial transaction records for at least five years from the date when Anzen8’s relationship with the client was terminated, or a transaction was completed.
GENERAL IDENTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS
Anzen8 obtains all information necessary to establish to its full satisfaction the identity of each new customer and the purpose and intended nature of the business relationship. The extent and nature of the information depend on the type of applicant (personal, corporate, etc.) and the expected size of the account. When an account has been opened, but problems of verification arise in the service relationship which cannot be resolved, Anzen8 can close the account and return the money to the source from which it was received. While the transfer of an opening balance from an account in the customer’s name in another organization subject to the same KYC standard will be considered. Anzen8 follows its own KYC procedures. Anzen8 can consider the possibility that the previous account manager may have asked for the account to be removed because of a concern about suspicious activities. Naturally, customers have the right to move their business from one organization to another.
However, if Anzen8 has any reason to believe that an applicant is being refused service facilities by another organization,Anzen8 is duty-bound to engage in enhanced due diligence procedures to the customer. Anzen8 will not agree to open an account or conduct on-going business with a customer who insists on anonymity or who gives a fictitious name. Nor should confidential numbered accounts function as anonymous accounts but they should be subject to exactly the same KYC procedures as all other customer accounts, even if the test is carried out by selected staff. Whereas a numbered account can offer additional protection for the identity of the account holder, the identity must be known to a sufficient number of staff to operate proper due diligence.
SPECIFIC CUSTOMER DUE DILIGENCE AND IDENTITY PROCEDURES
Client identification must be carried out as soon as reasonably practicable after first contact is made. As part of its obligation to exercise due diligence in customer identification, Anzen8 must confirm that the identity information which it holds for its customers remains fully updated with all necessary identification and information throughout the business relationship. Anzen8 reviews and monitors on a regular basis the validity and adequacy of customer identification information in its possession. Notwithstanding the above and taking into account the degree of risk, if it becomes apparent at any time during the business relationship that Anzen8 lacks sufficient or reliable evidence (data) and information on the identity and financial profile of an existing customer, Anzen8 will immediately take all necessary actions using the identification procedures and measures to provide due diligence, in order to collect the missing data and information as quickly as possible and in order to determine the identity and create a comprehensive financial profile of the customer.
Furthermore, Anzen8 monitors the adequacy of the information held and identity and economic portrait of its customers when and where one of the following events occurs:
Conduct of a significant transaction that appears to be unusual and/or significant as against the usual type of trade and economic profile of the customer;
A significant change in the situation and legal status of the customer such as:
Change of directors/secretary;
Change of registered shareholders and/or actual beneficiaries;
Change of registered office;
Change of trustees;
Change of corporate name and/or trade name;
Change of main trading partners and/or significant new business.
A significant change in the operating rules of the customer’s account, such as:
Change of persons authorized to operate its account;
Request for opening a new account in order to provide new investment services and/or financial instruments.
In case of customer transaction via internet, phone, fax or other electronic means where the customer is not present to verify the authenticity of his/her signature, or that is the person who actually owns the account, or is authorized to handle the account, Anzen8 has established reliable methods, procedures and practices to control access to electronic means to ensure that it deals with the actual owner or authorized signatory of the account. Where the customer refuses or fails to provide Anzen8 with the required documents and information for identification and creation of a financial portrait, before entering into the business relationship, or during the execution of an individual transaction without adequate justification, Anzen8 will not proceed in a contractual relationship or will not execute the transaction and may also report it to the AML/CFT Supervisor. This can lead to a suspicion that the customer is engaged in money laundering and terrorist financing. If during the business relationship the customer refuses or fails to submit all required documents and information, within reasonable time, Anzen8 has the right to terminate the business relationship and close the accounts of the customer. The compliance department also examines whether to report the case to the AML/CFT Supervisor.
Personal Customer’s details required;
True full name and/or names used;
Current permanent address, including postal code;
Date of birth;
Profession or occupation.
Names should be verified by reference obtained from a reputable source which bears a photograph, such as:
Current valid full passport;
Current valid full passport.
In addition to the customer’s name verification, the current permanent address should be verified by obtaining any one of the following documents in original form:
Copy of a recent utility bill;
Local tax authority bill;
Credit card monthly statement.
In addition to the above, an introduction from a respected customer personally known to the Manager of Anzen8 or from a trusted member of staff can assist the verification procedure. Details of the introduction should be recorded on the customer’s file.
Where customer contact is face-to-face;
Where address verification may be difficult, government issued photo identification must be obtained;
If in doubt seek to verify identity with a reputable credit or financial institution in the customer’s country of residence;
Where customer contact is not face-to-face;
Verification of identity and current address should be sought from a reputable credit or financial institution in the applicant’s country of residence.
Accounts for Corporate Customers:
Company searches, and other commercial enquiries to ensure that the applicant has not been or in the process of being dissolved, struck off, wound up or terminated. If changes to Company structure occur or ownership occurs subsequent to opening of an account with the Company, further checks should be made.
Identity verification should aim to identify The Company;
All persons duly authorized to operate the account.
In case of private companies, the major beneficial shareholders. The Company’s business profile in terms of nature and scale of activities. The following documents are required:
The original or certified copy of the Certificate of incorporation;
Where appropriate a search of the file at the Companies’ Registry;
Identity of individuals who are connected with the Company;
Creation of financial portrait.
Anzen8 must be satisfied that it is dealing with a real person, and for this purpose, obtains sufficient identification documents to prove that the applicant is who he/she claims to be. Anzen8 must verify the identity of beneficial owners of accounts. For legal persons, Anzen8 requires such data and information to understand the ownership and control structure of the customer. Regardless of the customer’s type (e.g. natural or legal person, partnership or sole trader), Anzen8 takes adequate data and information on the customer’s business activities and the expected pattern and level of transactions.
The identity of all customers is verified on the basis of reliable data and information given or received from independent and reliable sources, i.e. those data and information that is difficult to be falsified or to be obtained in an illegal way. The home and work addresses are considered a key element of the identity of a person. All data and information must be collected before entering into business relationship with the customer. In order to create a financial portrait of the customer and, as a minimum, Anzen8 must establish the following from the information provided by the customer:
The purpose and justification (reason) for the conclusion of the business relationship;
The anticipated turnover of the customer’s account, the nature of transactions, the expected source of money to be credited to the account and the expected destination of outgoing payments;
The size of assets and annual income, a clear description of the major business / professional activities/work.
The data and information that assist in establishing a financial portrait of the client (legal entity) include:
Country of incorporation Headquarters address
Names and identity of beneficial owners Directors,
Financial data Information of the group and/or companies that may be associated with the customer (country of incorporation of holding Company, subsidiaries and associated companies, the principal activities, financial results).
All above data and information will be recorded on a separate form which is filed in the customer’s file along with all other documents, and internal memos from the minutes of the meetings with the client. This form is updated on a regular basis or whenever new information on any changes or additions occur which affect the financial profile of the customer.
SIMPLIFIED CUSTOMER DUE DILIGENCE AND IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES
Anzen8 may apply simplified customer due diligence and identification procedures, provided that Anzen8 has sufficient information to establish that the client qualifies for the simplified customer due diligence. A simplified procedure is applied to the following customers:
A Company that is listed on an exchange
A government department
A local authority
The Intelligence Service
Credit or financial institution covered by the EU Directive
Credit or financial institution
carrying out one or more of the financial business activities as defined in law and which is situated in a country outside the European Economic Area, which:
In accordance with a decision of the Advisory Authority for Combating Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing, imposes requirements equivalent to those laid down by the EU Directive and it is under supervision for compliance with those requirements;
Listed companies whose securities are admitted to trading on a regulated market in a country of the European Economic Area or in a third country which is subject to disclosure requirements consistent with community legislation.
Domestic public authorities of member states of the European Economic Area that meet the following requirements: They were delegated a public office according to the treaty of the European Union, the treaties for the Communities or European Union Law;
The identity is publicly available, transparent and certain;
The customer’s activities, as well as its accounting practices are transparent;
They are subject to a community institutional organ or the authorities of a member state, or they are subject to adequate procedures ensuring the control of their activities.
Anzen8 may also conduct simplified customer due diligence on a person who purports to act on behalf of a customer when: Anzen8 already has a business relationship with the customer at the time the person acts on behalf of the customer.
Enhanced due diligence measures.
Anzen8 applies increased due diligence measures and customer identification procedures in the following cases:
If Anzen8 establishes a business relationship with a customer that is—
a trust or another vehicle for holding personal assets;
a non-resident customer from a country that has insufficient anti-money laundering and countering financing of terrorism systems or measures in place;
a Company with nominee shareholders or shares in bearer form. if a customer seeks to conduct an occasional transaction throughAnzen8 and that customer is— a trust or another vehicle for holding personal assets;
a non-resident customer from a country that has insufficient anti-money laundering and countering financing of terrorism systems or measures in place;
a company with nominee shareholders or shares in bearer form.
If a customer seeks to conduct, through Anzen8, a complex, unusually large transaction or unusual pattern of transactions that has or have no apparent or visible economic or lawful purpose;
When Anzen8 considers that the level of risk involved is such that enhanced due diligence should apply to a particular situation: Any other circumstances specified in regulations.
Where the customer has not been physically present for identification purposes.
In respect of cross-frontier correspondent banking relationships with credit institutions-customers from third countries. In respect of transactions or business relationships with politically exposed persons residing in a country within the European Economic Area or a third country. Anzen8 must conduct enhanced customer due diligence if:
It establishes a business relationship with a customer who it has determined is a politically exposed person;
A customer who it has determined is a politically exposed person seeks to conduct an occasional transaction through the reporting entity.
Anzen8 must conduct enhanced due diligence if—
It establishes a business relationship with a customer that involves new or developing technologies, or new or developing products, that might favour anonymity;
A customer seeks to conduct an occasional transaction through the reporting entity that involves new or developing technologies, or new or developing products, that might favour anonymity.
Enhanced customer due diligence measures is taken in all other instances which due to their nature entail a higher risk of money laundering or terrorist financing.
Performance by third parties. Anzen8 may rely on third parties for applying the requirements in respect of customer’s identification procedures and customer due diligence measures provided that all data and information is held by the third person for customer identification, and certified copies of the originals are provided to Anzen8.
ON-GOING MONITORING AND RECORDING OF ACCOUNTS AND TRANSACTIONS
On-going monitoring is an essential aspect of effective KYC procedures. Anzen8 can only effectively control and reduce the risk if it has an understanding of normal and reasonable account activity of its customers so that it has means of identifying transactions which fall outside the regular pattern of an account’s activity. Without such knowledge, it is likely to fail in its duty to report suspicious transactions to the appropriate authorities in cases where they are required to do so. The extent of the monitoring needs to be risk-sensitive. For all accounts, Anzen8 has systems in place to detect unusual or suspicious patterns of activity. This can be done by establishing limits for a particular class or category of accounts. Particular attention is paid to transactions that exceed these limits. Certain types of transactions alert to the possibility that the customer is conducting unusual or suspicious activities. They may include transactions that do not appear to make economic or commercial sense (big transactions), or that involve large amounts of cash deposits that are not consistent with the normal and expected transactions of the customer. Intensified monitoring for higher risk accounts is conducted. Anzen8 has set key indicators for such accounts, taking note of the background of the customer, such as the country of origin and source of funds, the type of transactions involved, and other risk factors.
Anzen8 is required to keep records for a period of at least seven years by law. The seven year period is calculated following the carrying out of the transactions or the end of the business relationship. The following records must be kept:
Copies of the evidential material of the customer identity.
Relevant evidential material and details of all business relations and transactions, including documents for recording transactions in the accounting books.
Relevant documents of correspondence with the customers and other persons with whom they keep a business relation.
All documents and information are available rapidly and without delay to the authorities for the purpose of discharging the duties imposed on them by the law.
The AML/CFT Supervisor needs to be able to compile a satisfactory audit trail. Document retention may be in original documents or certified true copies and be kept in hard copy, or other format such as electronic form given that they can be available at any time and without delay. When setting up document retention policies, Anzen8 considers the statutory requirements and the potential needs of the unit. Documents and information must be original or true copies. In cases where the documents are being certified by another person and not Anzen8, or the third party, then the documents must be notarized.
Effective KYC procedures embrace routines for proper management oversight, systems and controls, segregation of duties, training and other related policies. The board of directors of Anzen8 is fully committed to an effective KYC programme and procedures that ensures their effectiveness. Explicit responsibility is allocated within the organization for ensuring that Anzen8’s policies and procedures are managed effectively and are in accordance with local supervisory practice. The channels for reporting suspicious transactions are clearly specified and communicated to all personnel. Anzen8 maintains an ongoing employee training program so that the staff are adequately trained in KYC procedures. The timing and content of training for various staff categories is adapted by Anzen8 for its own needs. Training requirements should have a different focus for new staff, front-line staff, compliance staff or staff dealing with new customers. New staff are educated in the importance of KYC policies and the basic requirements at Anzen8. Staff members who deal directly with the customers are trained to verify the identity of new customers, to exercise due diligence in handling accounts of existing customers on an on-going basis and to detect patterns of suspicious activity. Regular refresher training is provided to ensure that employees are reminded of their responsibilities and are kept informed of new developments. It is crucial that all relevant staff fully understand the need for and implement KYC policies consistently. A culture within services that promotes such understanding is the key to a successful implementation.
SPECIFIC CUSTOMER DUE-DILIGENCE AND IDENTITY PROCEDURES
Resident Natural Person/s
(a) Full name and / or names used, based on birth certificate or passport, or document issued by an independent and reliable source and which bears a photograph of the customer.
Full permanent address, including the postcode, presentation of a recent (up to three months) telephone bill, electricity, rates, taxes, or bank account statement, or similar, with the above, documents.
Phone number, landline and mobile, and fax.
E-mail address, if any.
Date and place of birth.
Details of profession and other occupations, including the name of the employer/business organization.
Customer introduced by staff
(b) In addition to the above, where the client was introduced by a trusted member of the staff of Anzen8, or by other reliable existing client or a third person personally known, member of the board of directors, details of these recommendations must be produced and kept in the client’s file.
Joint accounts In cases of joint accounts of two or more persons, the identity of all persons (individuals) that hold or have the right to manage the account must be verified, as set out in Part A and B above where appropriate.
Accounts of unions, societies, clubs, provident funds and charitable institutions.
Certificate of Incorporation.
List of the members of the board of directors/ management committee.
The identity of all authorized persons.
Follow identification procedures for the above persons as defined in Part A and B above.
Accounts of unincorporated businesses, partnerships and other persons with no legal substance Identity of the directors/partners (Part A and B) Identity of the beneficiaries (Part A and B) Identity of authorized persons (Part A and B) In the case of partnerships, the original or a certified true copy of the partnership’s registration certificate Business address.
Description of nature and size of its activities.
The financial portrait.
Identity of beneficiaries.
In case of legal persons (ownership and control structure, of the customer).
Information regarding the business activities and the expected pattern and level of transactions Residence and business address.
The purpose and reason for the establishment of a business relationship.
Anticipated account turnover, the nature of the transactions, the expected origin of incoming funds to be credited to the account and the expected destination of outgoing transfers/payments.
The customer’s size of wealth and annual income, and a clear description of the main business / professional activities / operation.
Company’s name, country of incorporation, head offices address, names and identity of beneficial owners, directors, authorized signatories, financial information, ownership structure of the group that the company may be a part of (country of incorporation of the parent company, subsidiaries and associate companies, the main activities, financial information).
Where a formal partnership agreement exist, what must be provided and also a mandate from the partnership authorizing the opening of the account and confirming authority to a specific person who will be responsible for its operation.
Accounts for Legal Persons
Registration number – certificate of registration Registered name and trade name used
Full corporate registered address and head officers
Phone number, fax and E-mail address
Members of the board of directors
Persons authorized to operate the account and to act on behalf of the legal person
Real beneficiaries of private and public companies that are not listed in regulated market of a European Economic Area country or a third country with equivalent disclosure and transparency requirements
Registered shareholders that act as nominees of the actual beneficiaries’
The financial portrait of the legal person Identity info Identity of beneficiaries
In case of legal persons (ownership and control structure, of the customer) Information regarding the business activities and the expected pattern and level of transactions
Residence and business address
The purpose and reason for the establishment of a business relationship
Anticipated account turnover, the nature of the transactions, the expected origin of incoming funds to be credited to the account and the expected destination of outgoing transfer/payments.
The customer’s size of wealth and annual income, and a clear description of the main business / professional activities / operation Company’s name, country of incorporation, head offices address, names and identity of beneficial owners, directors, authorized signatories, financial information, ownership structure of the group that the company may be a part of (country of incorporation of the parent company, subsidiaries and associate companies, the main activities, financial information).
Certificate of incorporation Good standing certificate Certificate of registered address Certificate of directors and secretary Memorandum and articles of association
Certificate of registered shareholders constitution in the case of private and public companies that are not listed in regulated market of a European Economic Area country or a third country with equivalent disclosure and transparency requirements.
Resolution of the board of directors for opening the account and granting authority to those who will operate it.
In case of nominee shareholders of the actual beneficiaries,
a copy of the trust deed signed between the nominee shareholder and the beneficial owner, by virtue of which the registration of the shares on the name of the nominee shareholder on behalf for the real Beneficiary has been agreed
Documents and data to establish, the identity of persons authorized by the legal person to operate the account, as well as the registered shareholders and beneficial owners of the legal person.
Where necessary, a copy of the latest audited financial statements (if available) and / or copies of its latest management accounts.
It is noted that at any times during the business relationship, Anzen8 can obtain additional documents and information if required. Accounts for Legal Person (Companies or Legal Entities) All documents and information as stated above must be provided.
Anzen8 can conduct research and receive information from the Companies Registry or equivalent authority in the country of incorporation (legal entity) abroad and / or request information from other sources in order to ensure that the Company (legal person) is not nor is in the process of being dissolved or liquidated or struck off the registry and that it continues to be registered as an operating Company.
Shareholder – another entity In case of client – legal person applying for the conclusion of a business relationship or the execution of an occasional transaction and whose sole or direct shareholder is another legal person, before proceeding to the following must be provided:
All documents as stated previously above;
Identity of the individual beneficial owners or/and control the other legal person; I
dentity of persons who have the ultimate control over the legal person’s business and assets.
In the cases that the ultimate control is in the hands of the persons who have the power to manage the funds, accounts or investments of the legal person, without the need for further authorization and who would be in a position to override the internal procedures, we need the identity of persons exercising effective control, even if they have no direct or indirect interest or an interest of less than 10% of ordinary share capital or voting rights of the legal person.
If the beneficial owner of an entity is a trust then the following documents are required:
Name Date of establishment Identity of the trustee Identity of the beneficial owners
The nature and purpose of the establishment and activities (memorandum and articles of association)
Origin of the money, extracts from the trust agreement is needed and other relevant information from the trustees Investment funds, mutual funds and firms providing financial or investment services:
A license or authorization from a competent supervisory/regulatory authority of the country of incorporation and operation to provide the services.
Evidence that are subject to the supervision for the prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing purposes. In case the person is incorporated and/or operating in a third country the following must be obtained:
All documents as stated above.
Copy of the license or authorization granted from a competent supervisory/regulatory authority of its country of incorporation and operation.
Sufficient data and information to fully understand the control structure and management of the business activities and the nature of the services and activities provided by the customer.
In the case of investment funds and mutual funds the Financial Organization must provide the following:
Identity of the beneficial owners;
Information regarding their objectives and control structure, including documentation and information for the verification of investment managers, investment advisors, administrators and custodians;
Nominees or agents of third persons.
The following information is required:
Verify the identity of the nominees or the agent of the third person;
Verify the identity of any third person on whose behalf the nominee is acting; Copy of the authorization agreement that has been concluded between the interested Parties.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION NOTICE
ANZEN8 AT ANY TIME CAN INQUIRE AND OBTAIN ADDITIONAL DOCUMENTS AND INFORMATION IF REQUIRED. IF AT ANY LATER STAGE ANY CHANGES OCCUR IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE OWNERSHIP STATUS OR TO ANY DETAILS, THE CUSTOMERS HAS TO INFORM ANZEN8 AND PROVIDE ANY NEW INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTS. IF IN THE COUNTRY OF THE POTENTIAL/EXISTING CLIENT ANY OF THE REQUIRED DOCUMENT DOES NOT EXIST IN THE FORM REQUIRED BY ANZEN8 THE COMPLIANCE OFFICER MAY ACCEPT A SIMILAR DOCUMENT SERVING THE NEEDS OF DUE DILIGENCE.